Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors

Macdonald was influenced primary by German romance stories, particularly Heinrich von Ofterdingen , by Novalis pen name of Frederick von Hardenburg, The most notable authors of the Classic Modern Fantasy tradition and their most famous fantasies include: The Alice books are the third most-quoted texts in the English language, after the Christian Bible and Shakespeare. When Tolkien was young he had very little money. In he won the “Skeat Prize for English,” then suprised his tutors by spending the prize money mostly on Morris stories and translations. Morris created original epics based on Scandinavian and Icelandic myth, writing in an archaic “high” language which powerfully gripped Tolkien and may be the single strongest influence on the basic structure and language of LOTR.

Genetic Algorithms and Evolutionary Computation

Methods of Dating the Age of Meteorites Meteorites are among the oldest objects we know about – formed about 4. But how do scientists know this? This article describes the principles and methods used to make that determination. There are well-known methods of finding the ages of some natural objects.

An exploration of San Francisco neighborhoods with photos, descriptions, feature guides, walking tours, and vintage postcard scans. This page focuses on the middle section of Golden Gate Park, including the Japanese Tea Garden, Botanical Garden, Rose Garden, Rainbow Falls, Stow Lake, Strawberry Hill, Lloyd Lake, and Speedway Meadow.

Other problem-solving techniques Concisely stated, a genetic algorithm or GA for short is a programming technique that mimics biological evolution as a problem-solving strategy. Given a specific problem to solve, the input to the GA is a set of potential solutions to that problem, encoded in some fashion, and a metric called a fitness function that allows each candidate to be quantitatively evaluated.

These candidates may be solutions already known to work, with the aim of the GA being to improve them, but more often they are generated at random. The GA then evaluates each candidate according to the fitness function. In a pool of randomly generated candidates, of course, most will not work at all, and these will be deleted.

However, purely by chance, a few may hold promise – they may show activity, even if only weak and imperfect activity, toward solving the problem. These promising candidates are kept and allowed to reproduce. Multiple copies are made of them, but the copies are not perfect; random changes are introduced during the copying process. These digital offspring then go on to the next generation, forming a new pool of candidate solutions, and are subjected to a second round of fitness evaluation.

Those candidate solutions which were worsened, or made no better, by the changes to their code are again deleted; but again, purely by chance, the random variations introduced into the population may have improved some individuals, making them into better, more complete or more efficient solutions to the problem at hand. Again these winning individuals are selected and copied over into the next generation with random changes, and the process repeats. The expectation is that the average fitness of the population will increase each round, and so by repeating this process for hundreds or thousands of rounds, very good solutions to the problem can be discovered.

As astonishing and counterintuitive as it may seem to some, genetic algorithms have proven to be an enormously powerful and successful problem-solving strategy, dramatically demonstrating the power of evolutionary principles.


Research illuminates inaccuracies in radiocarbon dating June 5, by Daniel Aloi, Cornell University Sturt Manning cores a multi-century old Juniperus phoenicea tree near Petra in southern Jordan. Cornell University Radiocarbon dating is a key tool archaeologists use to determine the age of plants and objects made with organic material. But new research shows that commonly accepted radiocarbon dating standards can miss the mark—calling into question historical timelines.

Archaeologist Sturt Manning and colleagues have revealed variations in the radiocarbon cycle at certain periods of time, affecting frequently cited standards used in archaeological and historical research relevant to the southern Levant region, which includes Israel, southern Jordan and Egypt. These variations, or offsets, of up to 20 years in the calibration of precise radiocarbon dating could be related to climatic conditions.

Pre-modern radiocarbon chronologies rely on standardized Northern and Southern Hemisphere calibration curves to obtain calendar dates from organic material.

Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.. Dendrochronology is useful for determining the timing of events and rates of change in the environment (most prominently climate) and also in works of art and.

A pH of 7 is neutral, acidic soils have a pH of less than 7 and alkaline soils have a pH of greater than 7. Phloem- also known as inner bark, phloem transports dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of trees and woody plants Photogrammetry – the science of interpreting and making reliable measurements from aerial photographs Photosynthesis – the process by which plants manufacture simple sugars in the presence of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water.

Chlorophyll is essential to the process Plantation – an artificially reforested area established by planting or direct seeding and usually made up of a single species Point Source Pollution – sources of water pollution generally a man-caused pollutant which can be traced to a specific place or location i. The sun, wind, falling water and trees are examples of renewable resources Residual Stand – trees, often of saw log size, left in a stand after logging to grow until the next harvest Residual Trees – live trees left standing after the completion of harvesting Rill Erosion – an erosion process in which numerous small channels only several inches deep are formed; occurs mainly on disturbed and exposed soils Riparian – vegetation that grows close to water; creeks, springs, small lakes or swamps.

Seed Tree Method – a natural regeneration method where all but a few trees are removed from the harvest area at one time. The tips of shoots contain the apical meristem. Expressed as a ratio, the first number is the horizontal distance run and the second is the vertical distance rise , as 2: Expressed in degrees, the slope is the angle from the horizontal plane, with a 90 degree slope being vertical maximum and a 45 degree slope being a 1: Right and left banks are named facing downstream Streamside Management Zone SMZ – forested area immediately adjacent to stream channels.

Unreliability of Radiometric Dating and Old Age of the Earth

About the tree[ edit ] The grove in which Prometheus grew, with the headwall of Wheeler Peak in the distance Prometheus was a living member of a population of bristlecone pine trees near the tree line on the lateral moraine of a former glacier on Wheeler Peak, in Great Basin National Park , eastern Nevada. Wheeler Peak is the highest mountain in the Snake Range , and the highest mountain entirely in the state of Nevada. The bristlecone pine population on this mountain is divided into at least two distinct sub-populations, one of which is accessible by a popular interpretive trail.

Prometheus, however, grew in an area reachable only by off-trail hiking. In either or , a group of naturalists who admired Prometheus’s grove gave names to a number of the largest or most distinctive trees, including Prometheus.

Cross-dating of tree ring δ 18 O and δ 13 C time series Roden, John The science of dendrochronology relies on cross-dating techniques to ensure that a particular tree ring is associated with a specific year. Some tree species and environments produce ring-width time series that are difficult to cross .

In fact, it seems one secret to their longevity is the harsh environment in which most bristlecone pines grow. Bristlecone pines in Great Basin National Park grow in isolated groves just below treeline. Conditions are harsh, with cold temperatures, a short growing season, and high winds. Bristlecone pines in these high-elevation environments grow very slowly, and in some years don’t even add a ring of growth.

This slow growth makes their wood very dense and resistant to insects, fungi, rot, and erosion. Vegetation is very sparse, limiting the role of fire. Bristlecone pine seeds are occassionally cached by birds at lower elevations. Bristlecone pines grow more rapidly in more “favorable” environments at lower elevations. They do not achieve their legendary age or fascinating twisted shapes. While bristlecone pines are the longest-living tree, scientists debate what is truly the oldest living thing.

The creosote bush that grows in the Mojave Desert may be older.

Dating Games for Girls

Grace Muncey actually also just caring enough to ask that is awesome! Grace Muncey k so im not old enough to date but if i was…. What kind of compliments do u think are best? Your hair looks epic, nice shoes cool hat sweet car u r very nice… Generic compliments or specific straight up ones… Sorry for all the questions it probably sounds like I never interact girls lol I am trying to counteract the negative and demeaning things I hear about girls so often with some positive input I do try to be a gentlemen at all times especially around girls so just looking for some great ideas.

Grace Muncey specific compliments ummm… i think for me personally compliments about my personality rather than my physical appearance are more flattering and suitable for being friends and feeling respected. Definitely when you start dating a girl physical appearance compliments you look amazing, wow how long did it take for you to get your hair looking that great, etc.

The various dating techniques available to archaeologists by Michael G. Lamoureux, March/April Introduction. Today’s archaeologist has a wide variety of natural, electro-magnetic, chemical, and radio-metric dating methodologies available to her that can be used to accurately date objects that are just a few hundred years old as well as objects that are a few million years old with high.

Tree-Ring Dating Dendrochronology Dr. Ron Towner from the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona explains the principles behind dendrochronology and why this dating method is valuable to archaeologists. Ron demonstrates how to accurately count tree-rings, and discusses the importance of patterns and master chronologies.

Family trees, the tree of life, getting back to your roots…. But beyond the powerful imagery that trees give us to represent our history, what can trees actually tell us about the past? Dendrochronology is the scientific method of tree-ring dating. Americans first developed it in the early 20th century and now “dendro” is a common method of chronology that is used by scientists all over the world.

Dendrochronology has become a fundamental tool in science, for reinforcing and expanding on the timelines of historical and ecological events in the past. Dendrochronology operates on the principle that in temperate climates, like the southwestern United States, trees grow one ring every year. In the springtime when moisture surges, the cells of a tree expand quickly.

Over the course of the summer as the ground becomes more dry, the cells begin to shrink. This change in cell size is visible in tree-rings, or growth-rings. The variation in ring width is based on the amount of water a tree absorbed in a given year. Rainier years are marked by wider rings, drier years by narrow ones.

Meanings of Mathematical Symbols and Scientific Icons

Tree rings are used to calibrate radiocarbon measurements. Calibration is necessary to account for changes in the global radiocarbon concentration over time. Results of calibration are reported as age ranges calculated by the intercept method or the probability method, which use calibration curves. The internationally agreed calibration curves for the period reaching as far back as BC are those produced by PJ Reimer et al.

Dendrochronology is the study of the growth of tree rings and we can learn much from their study. We can date organic archaeological material and create a chronological record against which artefacts can be .

The following article is primarily based on a discussion of radiocarbon dating found in The Biblical Chronologist Volume 5, Number 1. Full details and references can be found there. Radiocarbon dating is based on a few relatively simple principles. There are many carbon atoms in our environment. The vast majority of these are 12C pronounced “c twelve” , the stable isotope of carbon. However, cosmic radiation constantly collides with atoms in the upper atmosphere.

Part of the result of these collisions is the production of radiocarbon 14C, pronounced “c fourteen” , carbon atoms which are chemically the same as stable carbon, but have two extra neutrons. Radiocarbon is not stable; over time radiocarbon atoms decay into nitrogen atoms. This tendency to decay, called radioactivity, is what gives radiocarbon the name radiocarbon.

The atmosphere contains many stable carbon atoms and relatively few radiocarbon atoms. The ratio of radiocarbon to stable carbon atoms in the atmosphere has varied in the past. This is because the amount and strength of cosmic radiation entering the earth’s atmosphere has varied over time. This, in turn, is caused by variations in the magnetic fields of the earth and sun, for example.

Although the ratio of radiocarbon to stable carbon in the atmosphere has varied over time, it is quite uniform around the globe at any given time because the atmosphere mixes very quickly and constantly.


Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like China , it seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meru , the only one inhabited with humans identical to us. The only question was how much of it was taken up by India. Indeed, India was once an island in the Mesozoic Ocean, but it moved north and collided with Asia. In Chinese, we get various ways of referring to India.

The fact that even high-technological methods, such as neutron imaging and SXFM analyses, do not aid the identification of true tree-ring borders from IADFs demonstrates that the problematic dating is not a detection problem and instead related to the intrinsical biological nature of olive tree-rings.

Are they somthing else? Thanks Discount Fiestaware – 26th Nov, 09 There is old and new Fiesta that have no stamp at all, such as the gusto bowls. It can be tough to date Fiesta with no markings — it all ces down to identifying the color and determining if that particular piece was produced by HLC. Tell us more about your Fiesta Karlie – 27th Nov, 09 That was very informative, and know i am looking in my cupboards to see how old my new fiesta is Jane Schenck – 2nd Jan, 10 The newer ones have the ink stamp.

But one piece, a covered butter dish only has a rather crude Fiesta molded into the bottom, the E in fiesta looks like uppercase, but only the E, and in another area at the side of the bottom of the dish is a small white C. It is in a rose color. I read somewhere about fake butter dishes. My gut says this is a fake but then I wonder if it is rare? I have 64 pieces and this is the only one that looks strange.

A brief essay on dating quilts

Today, the series continues with a look at the mighty oak, a symbol of New Orleans’ past — and its future. In spring — or thereabouts; estimating such things is a notoriously inexact science — an acorn dropped in an ancient forest in present-day City Park. Nearby and at about the same time, Jean-Baptiste, Sieur de Bienville, was sticking a figurative flag in the swampy soil, declaring the establishment of a settlement to be named New Orleans.

How radiometric dating works in general: Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements. The original element is called the parent, and the result of the decay process is .

Carbon 14 is used for this example: This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. One suspects that the scientific world would not be using the carbon method if it were so obviously flawed.

Could it be that the whole scientific community has missed this point, or is it another case of creationist daydreaming? This argument was popularized by Henry Morris , p. In another creationist, Robert L. Whitelaw, using a greater ratio of carbon production to decay, concluded that only years passed since carbon started forming in the atmosphere! The argument may be compared to filling a barrel which has numerous small holes in its sides.

Richard Dawkins – Dating The Earth – Dendrochronology